Paper Help!

So, obviously this paper is not even close done, but I am having some serious writers block. If anyone has any feedback (please be nice) I would really appreciate! This is what happens when you have TOO MUCH due in one week :D

The Affect of Tourism on Megaptera novaeangliae in the Tonga Archipelago

Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, have become an increasingly popular animal to both watch, and interact with. In Tonga the whale watching industry is still new so impacts of tourism in that specific area are not yet fully understood. In the last decade major conservation efforts have arisen to study the way tourism affects these gentle giants. This paper will attempt to highlight those efforts, and discuss the affects of tourism on humpback whales, specifically in Tonga.
The Kingdom of Tonga is a small archipelago in the south pacific. Humpback whales frequent the island chain from early July to late October to mate and give birth. In the past Tonga was primarily a whaling region. The locals lived off of whale meat, and humpback whale stocks were significantly reduced leading to the cessation of the humpback fishery. In recent years swimming with whales and whale watch tours have become increasingly popular. In recent years, however, the return of legal humpback whaling has been discussed. Because each whale is worth roughly a million dollars alive Tongans
There are, however, problems with all the attention the humpbacks have been getting. According to Rochelle Constantine, an expert in marine mammal tourism, humpback mothers with calves are the most susceptible group to long-term behavioral changes due to tourism. There are 3 main forms of tourism: aircraft, ships, and in water interaction.
Aircrafts, surprisingly, can have a large impact on humpback whale nurseries. Aircrafts, especially helicopters, produce a lot of noise when they fly or groups of whales. Humpbacks usually respond by changing direction or hastily diving. This is not a popular form of whale watching in Tonga, but some sites do offer helicopters. Due to the noise interference caused by these helicopters laws have recently come out prohibiting them from approaching less that 1000ft away.
One of the most common problems with tourism and humpback whales are the boats. Boats are noisy, fast, and large. In the 1940s a drastic decrease in Humpback Whales coincided with increased abundance of human boat activity. This occurred mainly off the coast of Alaska. Currently the same thing is starting to happen in Tonga. Whales are remaining farther out at sea, and showing a learned avoidance pattern to boats. In some instances the whale would charge the boat and scream, while others would avoid. Pods containing calves show the most behavioral disturbances. Furthermore, Humpback Whale songs were altered when boats approached at less than 275m. The whales display two avoidance strategies. These include both horizontal and vertical displacement.
Boats biggest impact on whales is noise. A whales hearing is much stronger than that of ours. They can detect SONAR and motor noises. Both of these cause faint noise masking. Masking occurs when faint noises, such as distant mating calls, are covered up. In most instances this is not detrimental to the species, but it does make mating more complicated. Humpback Whales deal with underwater noise constantly, but are not used to the loud constant noise of tourist boats. These boats often approach fast and loud. The whales can become distressed and confused resulting in diving behavior for several minutes costing precious energy. ******
There are three places in the world where people are allowed to enter the water with Humpback Whales. Tonga is one of the most important.
There are, despite all the drawbacks, some pros to tourism. In 2007 the Japanese wanted to continue whale hunting on Humpback Whales. Humpbacks are considered an endangered species, but are steadily recovering. Tonga was in uproar over this decision. Most Tongans grew up eating whale meat, but most have converted to the conservationist idea.

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